BACHELOR (vocational) Electricity and Electronics, specializing in Analog Electronics and Microelectronics

A short 1-year course for students holding a scientific L2 or a DUT (Technological University Diploma) or an Industrial BTS (Higher National Diploma).

It enables students to acquire, to complete and to develop their knowledge in the field of analog electronics and microelectronics.

It trains students to become systems architects with skills in designing and in developing analog electronic systems. These electronics engineers make technological choices (through-hole mount components and SMCs on multi-layer printed circuit boards or on integrated circuits) based on the application to be implemented. They design and make the circuits, applying relevant electromagnetic compatibility rules and they perform simulations. They establish the circuit diagrams on CAD workstations (Computer-assisted Design) and make electronics cards that will then be checked on the test bench, which they have implemented (automatic characterization). Their skills may also be used in electronic systems monitoring, prevention and servicing as well as in electronic system production management and organization.
  • Aims
The Degree in Electricity and Electronics, option Analog Electronics and Microelectronics deals with microelectronics and the technology used for manufacturing integrated electronic circuits. Specific electronics and microelectronics CAD software is also used. Such curriculums are currently only offered as part of engineering programmes and are lacking in high-level technician courses. This option provides students with the skills required for adapting to the rapid development of analog electronic systems, which combines system integration and miniaturization. In an economic context that aims to reduce the costs of system development and industrialization, the electronic functional design phase greatly encourages the use of CAD tools, which offer the opportunity to analyse systems through simulation. Furthermore, in the specific case of integrated circuits, the meticulous manufacturing techniques required cannot be implemented without this computer conception and design tool.

This option also provides inherent in-depth knowledge of the development of the techniques used and of societal requirements:
- the policy for developing energy savings is illustrated through a reduction in the electrical consumption of electronics systems. A solution is to supply the systems with low levels of voltage. These systems are becoming more vulnerable to parasites. It is indispensable, as such, to know the Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (EMC) and to take them into account from the design phase to limit the additional cost that may be generated by curative applications.
- the democratization of wireless transmission and communications systems, encouraged by the liberalization of the 2.4 GHz waveband, decided by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (July 2003) and the development of nomadic, energy-independent electronic communications systems, require electronics engineers who are specialized in analog and in radiofrequency.
- the programmable analog circuits that have recently appeared offer the opportunity to modify circuit functionality without having to intervene on the system itself (programme-reconfigurable analog system). This offers another alternative for developing certain systems.

Each of the technologies used for developing electronics systems require specific manufacturing resources and systems and require specific technical skills for each specific case (printed circuit boards, SMCs, integrated circuits, etc.). This degree aims to offer students training in these different techniques whilst providing a critical analysis for each of them (cost, reliability, profitability, maintenance, etc.). These “analog electronics architects” may put their skills to use in electronics system design (engineering office), in electronics system monitoring, prevention and servicing (trials, testing, programmable instrumentation, maintenance) as well as in electronic system production management and organization (tests, reliability, quality).

The curriculum is based on corporate environment in the sector of activity concerned and strong, well-established, evolutive partnerships with industrial groups and comprises, in particular:
- 150 hrs of tutored projects; every year more than 75% of the subjects are proposed by the industrial groups and are undertaken in-company;
- training on professional CADENCE software, for developing integrated circuits, is carried out on-site at STMICROELECTRONICS in Tours;
- a 16-week traineeship;
- 1/3 of the training is given by professionals.
  • Contents or list of themes and subjects taught
UE1: Analog electronics
Generating periodic signals
* How oscillators work
* Techniques for generating periodic signals
* Implementing a sinusoidal, triangular or square-wave function generator
* Implementing Butterworth, Tchebychev, Bessel, etc. filter functions
* Different filter structures (Sallen-Key, Rauch, etc.)
* Performing filter synthesis
* Designing a filter for an application (telephony for example)
* Different amplification structures (signal and power)
* Implementing the different amplifiers studied
Analog Electronics practical hands-on work (TP – travaux pratiques)
* The different fundamental analog electronics functions
* The different measuring techniques
* Learning how to use a new measuring device quickly (spectrum analysers, network analysers, etc.) and how to write easy-to-use technical documents

UE2: Circuit technologies
Semiconductor physics
* Understanding semiconductor physics
* Understanding bipolar structures, PN junctions (two-layer structure) and NPN and PNP transistors (three-layer structures)
* Different MOS structures (capacitor and transistor)
Printed circuits: CAD and developing SMCs
* Using software suites (Cadence) for simulating and for developing a PCB
* Knowing and applying rules and standards relating to the design and development of printed circuits
* Drawing up a manufacturing dossier that may be exploited by a subcontractor
Labview practical hands-on work (TP – travaux pratiques): Programmable instrumentation
* Apprehending programmable instrumentation
* Managing measuring devices
* Creating a measuring bench

UE3: Tutored projects
Project management
* Implementing flow management
* Learning how to define supply management, production planning management and distribution management systems
* Assessing and controlling costs
* Managing a project

UE4: Business culture and communication & knowledge
Culture, expression and communication
- Drawing up structured technical documents
- Gaining proficiency in basic and advanced function of a word processing programme (Open Office, Microsoft Office)
- Using and handling the different document search tools
- Presenting technical work to an audience
- Describing systems and processes, justifying and defending technical choices
- Using audiovisual aids (slideshows, videos, etc.)
Business knowledge
* The different company structures
* Company organization and how a business works
* Corporate production management

UE5: English
Written and oral communication
- Reading and understanding technical documents written in English
- Writing simple technical documents in English
- Describing systems and processes
- Understanding conversations and exchanging points of view
- Using audiovisual aids (slideshows, videos, etc.)

UE6: Analog electronics
Analog signal processing
* Techniques for modulating and demodulating analog signals (AM, BLU, FM, PM, etc.)
* Studying and designing applications from PLL circuits
* Recognizing and developing the different functions of a radiofrequency transmission/reception chain
HF measuring techniques
* Different measuring techniques with spectrum and network analysers
* Understanding electromagnetic wave propagation and transmission issues
* Analysing and solving impedance matching issues (using S parameters)
* Characterizing transmission lines, discrete and distributed element filters
Analog Electronics practical hands-on work (TP – travaux pratiques)
* Implementing analog signal processing techniques (AM synchronous demodulation using PLL)
* Characterize and analyse the functions and components of the RF field
* The different RF measuring techniques
* Analysing and understanding how transmission lines work

UE7: Circuit technologies
Integrated circuit CAD
* Learning to use integrated circuit CAD software through the CADENCE tool
* Designing masks using the CADENCE layout tool
Electromagnetic compatibility
* Electromagnetic compatibility standards (EMC)
* Applying EMC rules for designing and developing electronic systems
* Analysing electromagnetic coupling in EMC electronic circuits
* Understanding the thermal dissipation of component packaging
* Assembly and brazing techniques for components and electronic boards
* Understanding electric link behaviour
Microelectronics technology
* Learning the methods for obtaining monocrystalline silicon and the fundamental steps (deposits, silicon oxidation, ion implantation, thermal diffusion)
* Fundamental processes (photolithography, engraving, metallization and assembly)
* The characterization methods for the various technological steps
* The different technological sectors (bipolar and MOS)
* Practical hands-on work in the clean room (TP – travaux pratiques)
* Developing NMOS-type transistor processes
* Characterizing the transistors and the MOS transistor structures (timer, amplifier, etc.)

UE8: Tutored projects
* Managing an assignment autonomously
* Implementing the skills acquired
* Managing projects (specifications, schedule, costs, etc.)

UE9: Corporate life
Company law
* Knowing the different employment agreements; compulsory declarations, employees’ status and notion of company rights
* The different company structures
* Deciphering and understanding the different elements of a pay slip
Communication and proficiency in IT tools
* Communicating with management orally and in writing
* Running meetings, holding interviews and taking part in videoconferences
* Using text processing, spreadsheet and presentation tools effectively
Corporate economics
* Managing and using spreadsheets for financial and accounting management
* Establishing quotes
* Industrial property rules
Labour law
* Employees’ rights and obligations in the world of work
* Finding useful information in the “Labour Code”

UE10: English
Written and oral communication
- Reading and understanding technical documents written in English
- Writing technical documents in English
- Describing systems and processes
- Exchanging technical points of view

UE11: In-company traineeship
* Developing autonomy
* Integrating the company
* Complying with fixed objectives
* Presenting personal and/or collective work
* Discussing with technical and non-technical partners
  • Prerequisites
The course is intended initially for students who hold a: Scientific L2, a DUT in Industrial IT and Electrical Engineering (two-year technical degree), a DUT in Telecommunications and Networks, a DUT in Physical Measurements, a DUT in Industrial Engineering and Maintenance or a BTS in Electronics, Electrical Engineering (Higher National Diploma). Likewise, it is also open to: those with professional experience, validated through the accreditation for prior learning and work experience (VAE - Validation des Acquis de l’Expérience), students whose initial training is not included in the aforementioned and for whom the juries have validated their modules (ECTS gateways), students who have followed different curriculums and who demonstrate their motivation, their interest for the Degree and who have the intellectual capacities for passing an admission interview with a jury.